Tuesday, 17 July 2018

Fire Agate Sends Negative Energy Back Builds Impermeable Shield

Fire Agate

Fire Agate builds impermeable shield, sends negative energy back. Aids psychic protection, boosts creativity and sexuality, works within lower three chakras, makes you feel good to be alive!



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/fire-agate.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

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Vibrational Aromatherapy: Individual Essential Oils – Part 1

Vibrational Aromatherapy: Here’s a list of the subtle effects of individual essential oils.BergamotThe green color of Bergamot oil suggests an affinity with the Heart Chakra, and this is a particularly...

The post Vibrational Aromatherapy: Individual Essential Oils – Part 1 appeared first on Aromatherapy Blog.



from Aromatherapy Blog
https://www.thearomablog.com/vibrational-aromatherapy-individual-essential-oils-part-1/

from https://www.thearomablog.com

#aromatherapy #essentialoils

Monday, 16 July 2018

Dumortierite Enhances Patience, Intellectual & Psychic Abilities

Dumortierite

Dumortierite enhances your intellect and amplifies and boosts psychic abilities. Learn how it teaches you to stand up for yourself, promotes patience and aids you to take control of your own life.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/dumortierite.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Sunday, 15 July 2018

Dream Quartz Aids lucid Dreaming & Stimulates Prophetic Dreams

Dream Quartz

Dream Quartz aids the recall of dreams & stimulates lucid dreaming. They assist weight loss, aid peaceful sleep and boost psychic abilities such prophesy & mental telepathy. Useful healing stones. Aka Epidote In Quartz



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/dream-quartz.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Herkimer Diamonds Frequency Boosts Vibration Of Other Crystals

Herkimer Diamond

Herkimer Diamonds are powerful high vibration crystals that boost clairvoyant and clairaudient abilities and enhance communication with your spirit guides. Use with tiny stones to amplify their energy.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/herkimer-diamonds.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

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Saturday, 14 July 2018

Howlite Aids Insomnia & Stress, Calms Anger

Howlite

Howlite is a restful soothing stone useful for meditation & to aid insomnia. Helps you deal with aggressive people as it boosts patience & calms stress. Third eye energy aids past life exploration.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/howlite.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Develop Psychic Powers By The Use Of Specific Crystals

Charoite

Psychic powers may be developed using crystals to aid you. Abilities or gifts to develop includes clairvoyance or second sight, clairaudience, clairsentience, intuition, telepathic abilities and more.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/psychic-powers.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

spiritualseeker77: Healing frequencies to align your chakras... | Spiritual



spiritualseeker77:

Healing frequencies to align your chakras (also for spiritual awakening!) - Many FREE audios to try! 

Learn more & get the free app at http://onelink.to/pjmmu7 😀😀

Now available for Android phones!



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China, Taoism, Buddhism, and its Hermits: Red Pine

In this humorous and informative talk, Red Pine takes us on a journey from the time before China began, through the ages, and the development of Taoism and Buddhism.

from Buddhism now
https://buddhismnow.com/2018/07/14/china-taoism-buddhism-and-its-hermits-red-pine/

from https://buddhismnow.com

#buddhism #buddhist #Buddha

spiritualseeker77:Stay strong fellow spiritual seekers - you are... | Spiritual



spiritualseeker77:

Stay strong fellow spiritual seekers - you are all awesome!!!



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Friday, 13 July 2018

Blodite Helps You Let Go Of Oudated Beliefs

Blodite

Blodite also called Bloedite is a rare sodium stone that helps you let go of beliefs that are holding you back. Helps with developing intuition.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/blodite.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Tanzanite Stimulates Heightened Spiritual Growth

Tanzanite

Tanzanite stones embody the healing energy of the violet flame. These high vibration transformation crystals aid metaphysical healing, boost your spiritual growth and help you to develop psychic powers.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/tanzanite.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

America calls for a cultural shift in the way care is offered to ME/CFS patients | 12 July 2018

One of the world’s leading medical establishments, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA, published notes yesterday which call for a cultural shift in the way that care is offered to the 20 million or so Americans who have ME/CFS.

In a note labelled ‘Information for Healthcare Providers’, the CDC says patients benefit from being involved with their care. In the absence of reliable diagnostic tests and drug treatments, professionals should help guide their patients through self-management programmes.

In particular, professionals should focus on the use of activity management programmes, otherwise known as pacing, to avoid triggering harmful post-exertional malaise – which can floor patients for days and weeks after too much physical or mental exertion.

No mention is made of the value put upon Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Graded Exercise as firstline treatments for mild to moderate ME/CFS in the current NICE guideline on ME/CFS, which informs clinical practice here in the UK.

Dr Charles Shepherd, medical adviser to The ME Association, said this morning that he will draw this new CDC information to the attention of the Countess of Mar’s Forward-ME Group which meets next week to formulate its response to the current NICE guideline scoping consultation.


THE CDC NOTE PUBLISHED ON 12 JULY 2018

Clinical Care of Patients with ME/CFS

There are no confirmatory tests, cures, or drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) specifically for ME/CFS. While some patients and healthcare providers have reported improvement in ME/CFS after use of off-label or unlicensed medications, the efficacy of these medicines has not been tested in multiple, large, well-controlled clinical trials. Patients benefit from talking with their healthcare providers about potential therapies, including the risks and expense of unproven treatments. Patients also benefit from thorough medical evaluations and good clinical care.

Care focuses on alleviating symptoms through both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions and guiding patients through self-management. While there are no medications specifically licensed for the treatment of ME/CFS, there are drugs licensed for the treatment of some co-morbid conditions.

Helping patients get relief from symptoms and achieve improvement in quality of life are the main goals of treatment. In working toward these goals, it is important to prevent harm that can occur from triggering post-exertional malaise. It is also important to acknowledge the clinical significance of the condition and to validate the experience and concerns of patients and their loved ones. This acknowledgment often brings patients and families a sense of support and strengthens trust between patients and providers.

* Treating the Most Disruptive Symptoms First and Preventing Worsening of Symptoms
* Additional Strategies for Living with ME/CFS
* Monitoring the Use of All Medicines and Supplements
* Severely Affected Patients

To care for patients with ME/CFS, healthcare providers experienced in managing this illness typically develop an individualized treatment plan as a team effort between patients and their providers, as well as caregivers and loved ones. This individualized treatment program that best meets the needs of the patient is re-evaluated periodically based on each patient’s progress. Each patient’s program typically includes a combination of:

* Therapies to address symptoms
* Techniques to help patients cope
* Strategies to manage daily activities

ME/CFS affects patients in different ways, and treatment plans should be tailored to address symptoms that are most disruptive or disabling for each patient. It is best to proceed slowly. Expecting patients to return to usual activities should not be the initial management goal because the physical and mental exertion can aggravate symptoms and debilitate patients. An important strategy for patients to learn is how to manage their activities to avoid triggering post-exertional malaise (PEM). This is often referred to as activity management (also sometimes called pacing), and requires that patients learn to “listen to their bodies” to be aware of their individual exertional limits, aiming to remain as active as possible without exceeding them. Clinical experts have observed that this process requires “trial and error.”

Since ME/CFS can be unpredictable and can change over time, evaluation of each patient’s condition at scheduled intervals is warranted. As with many chronic illnesses, length of intervals between visits might vary from patient to patient and depends on the severity and degree of symptom improvement and control. The scheduled re-evaluations serve as opportunities to adjust the treatment strategies as needed based on patient status. While it may take some time to experience an improvement and not all patients may improve significantly, it is important to communicate to patients that improvement is possible.

Because ME/CFS is a complicated illness, its management may require input from a variety of medical professionals. Primary care providers can develop effective treatment plans. When expertise is available and accessible, these plans can sometimes be enhanced through collaboration with clinical specialists and a team of other health care professionals such as rehabilitation specialists, mental health professionals, and physical therapists.

Disclaimer: The content of this ME/CFS website is for informational purposes only and does not represent a federal guideline or recommendation for the treatment of ME/CFS. The information provided on this website is not intended to be a substitute for the medical judgment of the healthcare provider and does not indicate an exclusive course of action or treatment.



from ME Association
http://www.meassociation.org.uk/2018/07/america-calls-for-a-cultural-shift-in-the-way-care-is-offered-to-me-cfs-patients-12-july-2018/

from http://www.meassociation.org.uk

#cfsme

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Thursday, 12 July 2018

Jul 12, Is It Skin Cancer Or Just A Mole?

It’s common for people to panic when they find themselves with an irregular mole, and wonder if it’s cancer. But what most people don’t know is that there

from Holistic Healing Blog
https://www.holistic-mindbody-healing.com/is-it-skin-cancer-or-just-a-mole.html

from https://www.holistic-mindbody-healing.com/holistic-healing-blog.html

#holistic #healing

Que Sera Crystals, Discover Whatever Will Be?

Que Sera crystal

Que Sera crystals have an amazing vibration that brings spiritual light into the body. Aids clairaudience, psychic communication and healing, on all planes. Brings extra energy to help to recharge you.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/que-sera-crystals.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Solar Eclipse of July 12, 2018 | Spiritual

From https://ift.tt/2JiOdaK...

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Jul 12, Inner Talk - The Power of Thoughts

You may hear with your two ears, but it is the inner talk and the power of thoughts between those two ears that has the most impact on,,,

from Holistic Healing Blog
https://www.holistic-mindbody-healing.com/inner-talk.html

from https://www.holistic-mindbody-healing.com/holistic-healing-blog.html

#holistic #healing

My 5 Simple Rules for Life

Because our brains have the capacity to be complex, sometimes we tend to over-complicate things. 🙂

For example, due to our own individual experiences, we’ve each developed our own “Rules of Life” based on the beliefs we’ve concluded to be true about the world we live in.

This set of rules could be hundreds of enumerated items long just by itself, not including exceptions, ultimatums, contingencies, and probably tens of thousands of if “this” then “that” statements. Lol!

Today, I want to help simplify this list by sharing with you my 5 Simple Rules for Life which are guaranteed to apply to every person on the planet. 🙂

5 Simple Rules for Life

1. Be kind to others. Know that other people are doing the best they can with the resources they have.

2. Be kind to yourself. YOU are doing the best you can with the resources you have.

3. Never stop growing and striving for more from yourself.

4. Be willing to let go and FORGIVE yourself and others.

5. SMILE! It’s all working out as it’s supposed to. 🙂

Today, see if you can live by even just one of these rules. I promise your day will transform when you hold this simple intention!

Until next time,

Keep Tapping!

Nick Ortner


What’s one simple rule for life you live by? Let me know below!

The post My 5 Simple Rules for Life appeared first on The Tapping Solution.



from The Tapping Solution
https://www.thetappingsolution.com/blog/5-simple-rules-life/

from https://www.thetappingsolution.com/blog

#EFT #holistic #healing

Wednesday, 11 July 2018

spiritualseeker77: ““Do not judge me by my successes; judge me by how many times I fell down and... | Spiritual

spiritualseeker77: ““Do not judge me by my successes; judge me by how many times I fell down and...

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Photo | Spiritual





from Spiritual Seeker 77
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Blue Aventurine Aids Communication & Boosts Psychic Gifts

Blue Aventurine

Blue Aventurine resonates within the throat and third eye chakra. It stimulates the growth of psychic gifts & aids communication. It also assists weight loss and the healing of addiction.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/blue-aventurine.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Photo | Spiritual





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Tuesday, 10 July 2018

Magical Mystical Nuummite Known As The Sorcerers Stone

Nuummite

Nuummite has deep potent earth energy. It helps you master mystical and magical ability, develop psychic visions and intuition. Brings good luck, an increase in coincidences and synchronicity & aids manifestation.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/nuummite.html

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#crystals #crystal #healing

A Short History of Buddhism

The history of the Buddhism begins with the enlightenment of the Buddha. At the age of thirty-five, he awakened from the sleep of delusion that grips all beings in an endless vicious cycle of ignorance and unnecessary suffering (around 528 BCE). Having awakened, he decided to “go against the current” and communicate his liberating wakefulness to suffering beings—that is, to teach the Dharma.

For forty-five years, he crossed and recrossed central India on foot conveying his profound, brilliant wakefulness directly as well as by means of explanations that grew into a great body of spiritual, psychological, and practical doctrine. His enlightenment as well as the doctrine leading to it have been passed down through numerous unbroken lineages of teachers, which have spread to many countries. Many of these lineages still flourish.

At the time of the Buddha’s death (ca. 483 BCE), his Dharma was well established in central India. There were many lay followers, but the heart of the Dharma community were the monastics, many of whom were arhats [worthy ones, who attain Nirvana at the end of this lifetime]. Numerous monasteries had already been built round about such large cities as Rajagriha, Shravasti, and Vaishali.

The first to assume the Buddha’s mantle, tradition tells, was his disciple Mahakashyapa, who had the duty of establishing an authoritative version of the Buddha’s teachings. Thus, during the first rainy season after the Buddha’s death (parinirvana), Mahakashyapa convoked an assembly of five hundred arhats. At this assembly, it is said, Ananda, the Buddha’s personal attendant, recited all of the master’s discourses (sutras), naming the place where each was given and describing the circumstances.

A monk named Upali recited all the rules and procedures the Buddha had established for the conduct of monastic life. Mahakashyapa himself recited the matrika, lists of terms organized to provide analytical synopses of the teachings given in the sutras. These three extensive recitations, reviewed and verified by the assembly, became the basis for the Sutra Pitaka (Discourse Basket), the Vinaya Pitaka (Discipline Basket), and Abhidharma Pitaka (Special Teachings Basket), respectively. The Tripitaka (all three together) is the core of the Buddhist scriptures. This assembly, held at Rajagriha with the patronage of the Magadhan king Ajatashatru, is called the First Council.

In the early centuries after the Buddha’s death, the Buddha Dharma spread throughout India and became a main force in the life of its peoples. Its strength lay in its realized (arhat) teachers and large monasteries that sheltered highly developed spiritual and intellectual communities. Monks traveled frequently between the monasteries, binding them into a powerful network.

As the Dharma spread to different parts of India, differences emerged, particularly regarding the Vinaya, or rules of conduct. Roughly a hundred years after the First Council, such discrepancies led to a Second Council in Vaishali, in which seven hundred arhats censured ten points of lax conduct on the part of the local monks, notably the acceptance of donations of gold and silver. In spite of this council and other efforts to maintain unity, gradually, perhaps primarily because of size alone, the Sangha divided into divergent schools.

Among the principal schools was a conservative faction, the Sthaviravada (way of the elders), which held firmly to the old monastic ideal with the arhat at its center and to the original teaching of the Buddha as expressed in the Tripitaka. Another school, the Mahasanghikas, asserted the fallibility of arhats. It sought to weaken the authority of the monastic elite and open the Dharma gates to the lay community. In this, as well as in certain metaphysical doctrines, the Mahasanghikas prefigured the Mahayana.

Another important school was that of the Sarvastivadins (from Sanskrit sarva asti, “all exists”), who held the divergent view that past, present, and future realities all exist. In all, eighteen schools with varying shades of opinion on points of doctrine or discipline developed by the end of the third century BCE. However, all considered themselves part of the spiritual family of the Buddha and in general were accepted as such by the others. It was not rare for monks of different schools to live or travel together.

According to the Sthaviravadin tradition (known in Pali as the Theravada), which continues today in Southeast Asia, a Third Council took place in the time of King Ashoka (r. 276-232 BCE) at which the king declared the Sthaviravadin teachings the standard from which all other schools deviated. Perhaps in reaction to this, the Sarvastivadins gradually migrated to the west. They established a bastion in the city of Mathura, from which their influence continued to spread. Over centuries, they dominated the northwest, including all of Kashmir and much of Central Asia. Today a Sarvastivadin Vinaya lineage still survives in all the schools of Tibetan Buddhism.

King Ashoka was the third emperor of the Mauryan empire, which covered all of the Indian subcontinent but its southern tip. His personal espousal of the Dharma and adoption of its principles for the governance of his immense realm meant a quantum leap in the spread of the Buddha’s teaching. The imperial government promulgated the teachings. It supported the monasteries and sent proselytizing missions to the Hellenic states of the northwest and to Southeast Asia. Under King Ashoka, institutions of compassion and nonviolence were established throughout much of India. These include peaceful relations with all neighboring states, hospitals and animal hospitals, special officials to oversee the welfare of local populations, and shady rest stops for travelers. Thus he remains today the paragon of a Buddhist ruler, and his reign is looked back upon by Buddhists as a golden age.

The Mauryan empire soon fragmented, but the Buddha Dharma continued as a dominant force throughout India in the early centuries of the common era. The kings of the Satavahana dynasty of central India followed Ashoka in adopting the Dharma as a civilizing and unifying force in governing disparate peoples. King Kanishka (r. first-second centuries), whose vast Kushan empire, centered on Gandhara, encompassed northern India and large parts of Central Asia, was a champion of the Dharma, hailed as a second Ashoka.

Under his patronage, a Fourth Council was held, at which major new commentaries on the Tripitaka were written, largely under Sarvastivadin influence. Under Kanishka, the Buddha Dharma was firmly planted among the Central Asian peoples whose homelands lay along the Silk Route, whence the way lay open to China. The Kushan empire also saw the flowering of Gandharan art, which under Hellenistic influences produced Buddha images of extraordinary nobility and beauty.

Traditional accounts of the Fourth Council say that the assembly was composed of arhats under the leadership of the arhat Parshva but also under the accomplished bodhisattva Vasumitra. Indeed it was at this time, about the beginning of the second century, that the way of the bodhisattva, or the Mahayana (Great Vehicle), appeared. It was this form of the Buddha Dharma that was to conquer the north, including China, Japan, Korea, Tibet, and Mongolia.

The most visible manifestation of the Mahayana was a new wave of sutras, scriptures claiming to be the word of the Buddha that had remained hidden until then in other realms of existence. The Mahayana replaced the ideal of the arhat with that of the bodhisattva. Whereas arhats sought to end confusion in themselves in order to escape samsara, bodhisattvas vowed to end confusion in themselves yet remain in samsara to liberate all other sentient beings. The vision of spiritual life broadened beyond the controlled circumstances of cloister and study to include the wide-open situations of the world.

Correspondingly, the notion of “buddha” was no longer limited to a series of historical personages, the last of whom was Shakyamuni [Siddhartha Gautama], but referred also to a fundamental self-existing principle of spiritual wakefulness or enlightenment. While continuing to accept the old Tripitaka, Mahayanists regarded it as a restricted expression of the Buddha’s teaching, and they characterized those who held to it exclusively as Hinayanists (adherents of the Hinayana, the Small Vehicle).

Great masters shaped the Mahayana in the early centuries of the common era. Outstanding among them all was Nagarjuna (fl. second or third century), whose name connects him with the nagas (serpent deities) from whose hidden realm he is said to have retrieved the Prajnaparamita sutras, foundational Mahayana scriptures [see pages 177-213]. Nagarjuna was born in South India and became the head of Nalanda, the great Buddhist university) a few miles north of Rajagriha, which was a major stronghold of the Dharma for a thousand years. Nagarjuna’s commentaries and treatises expounded the teachings of the Madhyamaka (Middle Way), one of the two main Mahayana schools. Another great master was Asanga (fl. fourth century), who founded the other main school, the Yogachara, which focused on experience as the ultimate principle.

Through most of the Gupta period (c. 300-c. 600), the Buddha Dharma flourished unhindered in India. In the sixth century, however, hundreds of Buddhist monasteries were destroyed by invading Huns under King Mihirakula. This was a serious blow, but the Dharma revived and flourished once again, mainly in northeastern India under the Pala kings (eighth-twelfth centuries). These Buddhist kings patronized the monasteries and built new scholastic centers such as Odantapuri near the Ganges some miles east of Nalanda. Though the Hinayana had largely vanished from India by the seventh century, in this last Indian period the Mahayana continued, and yet another form—known as Mantrayana, Vajrayana, or Tantra—became dominant.

Like the Mahayana, the Vajrayana (Diamond Vehicle) was based on a class of scriptures ultimately attributed to the Buddha, in this case known as Tantras. Vajrayanists regarded the Hinayana and Mahayana as successive stages on the way to the tantric level. The Vajrayana leaped yet further than the Mahayana in acceptance of the world, holding that all experiences, including the sensual, are sacred manifestations of awakened mind, the buddha principle. It emphasized liturgical methods of meditation, or sadhanas, in which the practitioner identified with deities symbolizing various aspects of awakened mind. The palace of the deity, identical with the phenomenal world as a whole, was known as a mandala. In the place of the arhat and the bodhisattva, the Vajrayana placed the siddha, the realized tantric master.

By the thirteenth century, largely as a result of violent suppression by Islamic conquerors, the Buddha Dharma was practically extinct in the land of its birth. However, by this time Hinayana forms were firmly ensconced in Southeast Asia, and varieties of Mahayana and Vajrayana in most of the rest of Asia.

China

The Mahayana entered China through Central Asia at the beginning of the common era. At first it was confused with indigenous Taoism, whose terms it had to borrow. The Kuchean monk Kumarajiva (344-413), brought to China as a prisoner of war, created a new level of precision in Chinese Buddhism. His lucid translation and teaching resulted in the formation of the Chinese Madhyamaka school (San-Iun, Three Treatises). Paramartha (499-569) was another great translator and teacher. His work made possible the development of the Fa-hsiang, or Chinese Yogachara, school.

Buddha Dharma’s golden age in China was the T’ang period (618-907). Monasteries were numerous and powerful and had the support of the emperors. During this time the other main Chinese Dharma schools—Hua-yen, T’ien-t’ai, Ch’an, Pure Land, and the tantric Mi-tsung—made their appearance. In 845, however, came a major persecution of the Dharma community, and the monasteries had to be evacuated. Thereafter the Buddha Dharma in China never recovered its former glory.

The Sung period (960-1279) was a time of blending Taoist, Buddhist, and Confucian ideas and methods. Under the Ming dynasty (1368-1662), a fusion of Ch’an and Pure Land opened the way for a strong lay movement. During the Ch’ing period (1663-1908), the Tibetan Vajrayana made its mark on Chinese Buddhism, mainly through the imperial courts. Communist rule in the twentieth century reduced the Dharma community to a remnant, but in Taiwan the Dharma flourished, predominantly in Pure Land and other popular forms.

Korea

Buddha Dharma came to Korea from China in the fourth century CE. It flourished after the Silla unification in the seventh century. By the tenth century there were Korean versions of most Chinese schools. Paramount were Ch’ao, Hua-yen, and a Vajrayana form related to the Chinese Mi-tsung. The heyday of Korean Dharma was the Koryo period (932-1392), during which the comprehensive Tripitaka Koreana was published. Under the Yi dynasty (1392-1910), Confucianism became the state religion and the Buddha Dharma was forced into the background. A revival came after the end of Japanese rule in 1945, when the Won movement, a popular Buddhism much influenced by Ch’an, came to the fore. Nowadays, a kind of syncretic Buddhism is widespread in Korea.

Japan

The Buddha Dharma was brought to japan from Korea in 522. It received its major impetus from the regent prince Shotoku (r. 593-621), a Japanese Ashoka. He established Buddhism as the state religion of Japan, founded monasteries, and himself wrote important commentaries on the sutras. Initially, it was primarily the Sanron (San-Iun, Madhyamaka) school that spread. In the ninth century, six Japanese schools, originally brought from China—Kosha, Hosso, Sanron, Jojitsu, Ritsu, and Kegon—were officially recognized, with the imperial house adopting the Kegon Dharma.

During the latter part of the Heian period (794-1184), the Tendai and tantric Shingon schools became predominant. From the tenth to fourteenth centuries, various Pure Land sects began to prosper. Zen (Ch’an) came to Japan from China toward the end or the twelfth century, and remained a vital force in Japanese cultural life ever after; Soto and Rinzai are its two main schools. After the appearance of the Nichiren school in the thirteenth century, no further movements developed until modern times. All Japanese schools assimilated aspects of indigenous Shinto kami [deities inhabiting nature) and ancestor worship.

Since World War II, various modernizing lay movements such as Soka-gakkai and Rissho Kosei-kai have developed. Japan today boasts an unparalleled variety or Buddhist sects.

Tibet

The Buddha Dharma of Tibet (and Himalayan countries such as Sikkim, Bhutan, and Ladakh) preserved and developed the Vajrayana tradition of late Indian Buddhism and joined it with the Sarvastivadin monastic rule. The first spreading of Buddhism was initiated by King Trisong Detsen (755-797), who invited to Tibet the Indian pandit [learned man] Shantarakshita, notable for his brilliant synthesis of the Madhayamaka and Yogachara, and the great Indian siddha Padmasambhava. The tradition of the Nyingma school stems from this time. After a period of persecution, a second spreading came in the eleventh century, resulting in the foundation of the Kagyu and Shakya schools. A major part of Indian Buddhist writings were translated to form the Tibetan canon, which included tantric scriptures and commentaries, preserving many texts otherwise lost.

In the fourteenth century, a reform movement resulted in the formation of the Gelukpa school, the fourth of the principal schools of Tibetan Buddhism. By the late twentieth century, as a result of Chinese repression Buddhism in Tibet was reduced to a vestige, but it remained in Sikkim and Bhutan. Centers of Tibetan Buddhism also developed in northern India and Nepal as well as in Europe, Australia, and North America.

Mongolia

The Mongols were definitively converted to Tibetan Buddhism in the sixteenth century. Scriptures and liturgies were translated into Mongolian, and the four principal Tibetan schools flourished until the Communist takeover of the twentieth century.

Vietnam

Vietnam lay under Chinese influence, and the Chinese Mahayana sects of Ch’an (Thien) and Pure Land (Tindo) were well established in the country by the end of the first millennium. Theravada was introduced b the Khmers but remained largely confined to areas along the Cambodian border. A modern social-action – oriented movement fusing the two Mahayana sects began in Saigon in 1932. In 1963 Theravadans joined this movement, and a United Buddhist Congregation of Vietnam existed fleetingly. Today Buddhists in Vietnam remain intensely involved in politics and social action.

Burma (Myanmar)

Emissaries sent by King Ashoka in the third century BCE first brought the Dharma to Burma. By the fifth century, the Theravada was well-established, and by the seventh century the Mahayana had appeared in regions near the Chinese border. By the eighth century, the Vajrayana was also present, and all three forms continued to coexist until King Anaratha established the Theravada throughout the land in the eleventh century. Pagan, the royal capital in the north, adorned with thousands upon thousands of Buddhist stupas and temples, and was the principal bastion of Buddha Dharma on earth until sacked by the Mongols in 1287.

In succeeding centuries the Theravada continued strong, interacting closely at times with the Dharma centers of Ceylon [Sri Lanka]. The Burmese form of Theravada acquired a unique flavor through its assimilation of folk beliefs connected with spirits of all kinds known as nats. Today 85 percent of Burmese are Buddhist, and Buddhism is the official religion of the country.

Cambodia (Kampuchea)

The Buddhism of the Sarvastivadin school spread to Cambodia in the third century BCE and reached a high point in the fifth and sixth centuries. By the end of the eighth century, elements of Mahayana had also appeared. Succeeding centuries brought a fusion of Buddha Dharma with Shaivite Hinduism. In the fourteenth century, however, the Theravada was firmly imposed on the country by the royal house, and it has remained dominant. In 1955 Prince Norodom Sihanouk sought to unite the country under the banner of king, Dharma, and socialism.

Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

In the third century BCE, King Devanampiya Tissa turned to Theravada Buddhism. The Sinhalese king built the Mahavihara monastery and there enshrined a branch of the Bodhi Tree that had been brought from India. For more than two millennia since that time, the Mahavihara has been a powerful force in the Buddhism of Ceylon and other countries of Southeast Asia, notably Burma and Thailand. The Theravada in Ceylon remains the oldest continuous Dharma tradition anywhere in the world.

Nonetheless, factions reflecting the influence of other Indian or Theravada schools played a significant role. These centered around other great Sinhalese monasteries such as the Abhayagirivihara and the Jetavanavihara. Mahayana and tantric influences are also traceable, and Tamil Hinduism had an ongoing influence outside the monasteries. Associated with the Mahavihara was the preeminent teacher and writer Buddhaghosha (fl. fourth-fifth centuries), whose great Vishuddimagga (Path of Purity) gives a definitive account of the Theravada. In the twelfth century King Parakkambahu forcibly imposed the Mahaviharan brand of Theravada on the entire country.

The attempted conversion of the country to Christianity by Portuguese and Dutch colonists in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries greatly weakened the Dharma in Ceylon but made it a rallying point for Sinhalese nationalism. In the following centuries Sinhalese kings turned to Burma and Thailand to refresh Sinhalese monastic lineages. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, many Europeans came to the aid of Sinhalese Buddhism. By the time of independence in 1948, the Theravada was again thriving in Ceylon and exercising significant influence beyond its borders.

Thailand

Some form of Hinayana Buddhism arrived in Thailand from Burma in about the sixth century; however, the Mahayana seems to have been dominant between the eighth and thirteenth centuries. From the eleventh century, Hinduist Khmers were a major factor in many regions of the country. In the thirteenth century, however, the Thai royal house established Theravada Buddhism as the national religion.

Eventually, the Khmers were converted to Theravada and became strong supporters. In the nineteenth century, the reformist Dhammayut school, characterized by strict adherence to Vinaya discipline, arose under royal influence. Today it remains the dominant element in Thai Buddhism and has also influenced other countries of Southeast Asia. Ninety-five percent of the Thai population is Buddhist.

The Western World

Over the last two hundred years many Western intellectuals were drawn to and influenced by Buddhism. The exotic profundity of Buddhist thought inspired philosophers like Arthur Schopenhauer and Henri Bergson. In the twentieth century there has been considerable attention to Buddha Dharma in academic circles, and fairly accurate translations of Buddhist texts have gradually become available since the 1930s. A new level of understanding has come about since the 1950s as authentic Asian meditation masters have established themselves in Western countries and taken on serious Western students.

Theravada Buddhism has had a significant impact since the 1930s, Zen since the 1950s, and the tantric Buddhism of Tibet since the 1970s. Recently Westerners have begun assuming leadership in age-old Asian lineages. Of course, significant numbers of Asian Buddhists have reached the West as part of immigrant populations. But thus far there has been little crossover of Buddha Dharma from this source into host cultures.

[This story was first published in 2008]

The post A Short History of Buddhism appeared first on Tricycle: The Buddhist Review.



from Buddhism for Beginners – Tricycle: The Buddhist Review
https://tricycle.org/magazine/a-short-history-of-buddhism/

from https://tricycle.org

#buddhism

Photo | Spiritual





from Spiritual Seeker 77
http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/post/175745733686

from http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/

#spiritual

The Brave Parrot: Being Small in a Big, Troubled World

parrot jakata

This story is from the Jataka tales, stories of the Buddha’s past lives.

The Buddha was once a little gray parrot.

When lightning sets a tree ablaze and her forest begins to burn, the parrot cries out a warning to others: “Fire! Run to the river!” Then she flies toward the safety of the river and its other shore.

But as she flies, she sees below her animals and trees already trapped, surrounded by flames. And suddenly she sees a way to save them. She flies to the river. The animals already huddled safely there are sure nothing more can be done. Each offers a valid reason for staying safely put and not making further efforts. But the little parrot says she has spotted a way, so she must try.

She wets her feathers in the river, fills a leaf cup with water, and flies back over the burning forest. Back and forth she flies carrying drops of water. Her feathers become charred, her claws crack, her eyes burn red as coals.

A god looking down sees her. Other gods laugh at her foolish­ness, but this god changes into a great eagle, flies down, and tells her, as it’s hopeless, to turn back. She won’t listen but continues bringing drops of water. Seeing her selfless bravery, the god is overwhelmed and begins to weep. His tears put out the fire and heal all the animals, plants, and trees. Falling on the little parrot, the tears cause her charred feathers to grow back red as fire, blue as a river, green as a forest, yellow as sunlight.

She is now a beautiful bird.

The parrot flies happily over the healed forest she has saved.

The Brave Parrot Jataka tale embodies the central bodhisattva vow of Mahayana Buddhism—to free all sentient beings from suffering, which is caused by ignorance of True Nature. We also vow to release beings from the bondage we impose on them by our own inat­tention and ignorance—which also means we vow to liberate rivers, mountains, plants, oceans, animals, and fellow humans from the effects of exploitative social and economic systems.

Saving all beings is the first of the “Four Great Vows for All” known to all aspiring buddhas and bodhisattvas past, present, and future. The three remaining vows are actualizations of the first: to let go of our own habitual greed, anger, and ignorance; to recognize everything we encounter as a potential dharma gate opening into deeper understand­ing; and to undertake the task of embodying the ungraspable, selfless way of the Buddha. In other words, in order to fulfill the Great Vow to save all, we must do the hard—one might even say impossible—work of fully waking up.

The little parrot in this Jataka finds herself at a crossroads. She is capable of saving herself, but recognizes this is not enough.

At the beginning of the story the little parrot is content with her life. She has the gift of flight, after all. She is even happier at the end, having used her gift not just for her own sake but to liberate others. Her own great vow has become that much more real.
Greed, hatred, and ignorance arise in our minds, and if we build a self on them, we’re trapped. But if we don’t make our nest there, though self-centered thoughts come, they also go like the wind that shakes the branches and then disappears. We don’t fight them; we don’t try to stop them. We breathe into them, attend to our practice in the midst of them, and so see them arise and fade.

As we become freer of our own stuckness, we free others from what we ourselves no longer project onto them. To be free of ourselves is to free others from ourselves, from the burden of having to bear, and bear with, our needs, desires, and expectations. To free others is to diminish our fascination with the experience of isolated egotism.

This practice can and indeed must be taken up where we are, as we are; otherwise our vow remains just a distant ideal. This vow is not a formality, not simply something we recite after periods of zazen. Each day we do our best to dip in the river and fly back with a few drops of water for our burning world. Each day we practice the realization of this moment and engage this never-to-be-repeated moment of practice.

In koan number 14 of the Blue Cliff Record, a monk asks, “What is the teaching that Shakyamuni preached throughout his life?” Yun-men answers, “One preaching in response!” That’s it!

Philip Kapleau Roshi used to say that being a Buddhist doesn’t mean act­ing like Buddha, imitating the guy on the altar with the half-smile on his lips. If you’re at a party sitting in a corner with crossed legs, wearing a halo, looking wise and kind, Roshi might say, “Get up and dance! Try the hors d’oeuvres. Talk to people.” In short, respond to time, place, and circumstance. When sad things happen, we’re going to cry. When joyous things happen, we’ll laugh. When infuriating things happen, we might even get angry. “Selflessness” doesn’t mean we become like zombies or that we’re blown about by every wind. The dharma practice of releasing or seeing through self-centeredness leads to a fuller, more centered, and more fully present life.

From Before Buddha was Buddha, by Rafe Martin © 2018. Reprinted with permission of Wisdom Publications (wisdompubs.org).

The post The Brave Parrot: Being Small in a Big, Troubled World appeared first on Tricycle: The Buddhist Review.



from Teachings – Tricycle: The Buddhist Review
https://tricycle.org/trikedaily/parrot-jakata/

from https://tricycle.org

#buddhist #buddhism

Monday, 9 July 2018

Bustamite Attracts Happiness and Stimulates Blissful Feelings

Bustamite

Bustamite stimulates joy and happiness, aids stress and helps to clear energetic blockages. Use in meditation to contact angels, boost intuition and for inner child healing.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/bustamite.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

10 Ayurvedic home cures for bleeding gums

Do you gums bleed when you bite into something hard, or when you brush your teeth? Bleeding gums are indeed a cause of worry, as they are an indication of...

from Ayurveda India – Ayurvedic Remedies | Holistic Health
http://www.ayurvedictalk.com/10-ayurvedic-home-cures-for-bleeding-gums/2957/

from http://www.ayurvedictalk.com

#ayurveda #ayurvedic

Women and Power: The Journey to Find Your True Path

When we hear the word “power”, we often associate it with words like force, aggression, gain, and conflict.

Everything has a masculine and feminine energy to it, and it’s these complimentary aspects that allow nature to live in balance.

We ourselves also have a masculine and feminine side, and so does the applications of power.

In this interview that Jessica had with the amazing Claire Zammit, she’ll share the concept of Feminine Power, and help to break down this new way of thinking that takes the traditional definition of “Power” to a whole new level.

As women embrace power, how it’s known in today’s world, there is also an impulse to self-actualize and expand this power. To truly succeed is to actually become our true selves, and to create a life where we live the best version of ourselves.

Listen, download or watch the interview here!


Join Claire Zammit for the Premier of her LIVE Event on Saturday, July 14th

Discover the simple but powerful shift that will propel you into a life of flow and magic and ignite your destiny!

Reserve your free seat!

The post Women and Power: The Journey to Find Your True Path appeared first on The Tapping Solution.



from The Tapping Solution
https://www.thetappingsolution.com/blog/women-power-journey-find-true-path/

from https://www.thetappingsolution.com/blog

#EFT #holistic #healing

Can you remember those “simpler times” in your life?

I’ve watched this video all the way through twice in the past week. Once on my own, and then I showed it to a few friends.

It’s made me laugh, and at the same time get a little teary-eyed (especially at the end). I saw the same reaction from my friends.

I’ve wondered since watching it why it moved us so… and I think it’s a combination of bringing us back to times that perhaps seemed simpler (even if that’s just a memory and not an actual fact!) and of the incredible power of music in our lives.

Make sure to watch the video until the end, the last 5 minutes are magical.

And if you’ve seen it already, it’s worth another watch, while asking yourself:

“What is it about this video that strikes such a chord within my heart?”

“How can I evoke these positive feelings in my life more often?”

Comment below the video and let me know.

Until next time,

Keep Tapping!

Nick Ortner


Did watching this video take you back to a specific time in your life? Comment below!

The post Can you remember those “simpler times” in your life? appeared first on The Tapping Solution.



from The Tapping Solution
https://www.thetappingsolution.com/blog/can-remember-simpler-times-life/

from https://www.thetappingsolution.com/blog

#EFT #holistic #healing

Bustamite Attracts Happiness and Stimulates Blissful Feelings

Bustamite

Bustamite stimulates joy and happiness, aids stress and helps to clear energetic blockages. Use in meditation to contact angels, boost intuition and for inner child healing.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/bustamite.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

true lol :) | Spiritual



true lol :)



from Spiritual Seeker 77
http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/post/175702084364

from http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/

#spiritual

Sunday, 8 July 2018

Branches of the Sandokai, by Shunryu Suzuki

Shunryu Suzuki's comments of the Sandokai. Short film (around 15 minutes).

from Buddhism now
https://buddhismnow.com/2018/07/08/branches-of-the-sandokai-by-shunryu-suzuki/

from https://buddhismnow.com

#buddhism #buddhist #Buddha

Soul Star Chakra Stones Enhance Divine Love, Enlightenment & Ascension

Selenite

Work with Soul Star Chakra stones from list to aid spiritual growth, Divine love, enlightenment & ascension. Situated a hand width above the top of the head, aka Seat of The Soul or Eighth chakra



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/soul-star-chakra-stones.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Photo | Spiritual





from Spiritual Seeker 77
http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/post/175682101276

from http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/

#spiritual

Photo | Spiritual





from Spiritual Seeker 77
http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/post/175682084721

from http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/

#spiritual

Black Tourmaline, Want A Powerful Psychic Protection Stone?

Black Tourmaline

Black Tourmaline gives psychic protection against negative energy and psychic attack. It aids electromagnetic sensitivity, helps spiritual grounding, heals allergies, brings good luck and happiness.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/black-tourmaline.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Photo | Spiritual





from Spiritual Seeker 77
http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/post/175661622121

from http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/

#spiritual

Photo | Spiritual





from Spiritual Seeker 77
http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/post/175661589906

from http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/

#spiritual

Saturday, 7 July 2018

Use Quartz Crystals For Healing, Strong Amplification Properties

Chevron Amethyst

Quartz crystals are powerful healing crystals with potent metaphysical properties. They amplify their energy outwards and can be programmed for healing yourself and others. Use them to create a stronger healing result.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/quartz-crystals.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Tigers Eye Stone Aids Harmonious Balanced Action

Tigers Eye Stone

Tigers eye stone has a calming, centering and grounding vibration. Like all golden stones these crystals aid manifestation, enhance creativity, and infuse you with confidence, brightness, optimism and discernment.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/tigers-eye-stone.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Subtle Aromatherapy

Subtle aromatherapy is the use of essential oils in non-physical ways, it can be described as a form of vibrational healing, by drawing on the subtle, energetic or vibrational qualities...

The post Subtle Aromatherapy appeared first on Aromatherapy Blog.



from Aromatherapy Blog
https://www.thearomablog.com/subtle-aromatherapy/

from https://www.thearomablog.com

#aromatherapy #essentialoils

Photo | Spiritual





from Spiritual Seeker 77
http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/post/175645231741

from http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/

#spiritual

Photo | Spiritual





from Spiritual Seeker 77
http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/post/175633640540

from http://spiritualseeker77.tumblr.com/

#spiritual

Friday, 6 July 2018

Unlock Your Imagination Using Specific Crystals

Blue Pietersite

Unlock your imagination to improve your life. Did you know that using specific third eye chakra and sacral chakra stones can help to stimulate your imagination? Find out how.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/unlock-your-imagination.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Emerald Stones Emit The Green Ray Energy Of Abundant Love

Emerald Stone

Emerald stones are the green colored Beryl. They emit the purest green ray energy for successful and abundant love. This May birthstone manifests loyalty and unconditional love in relationships.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/emerald-stones.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Taking a holiday this summer? We can help with pre-travel planning | 06 July 2018

 


Dr Charles Shepherd, Hon. Medical Adviser, ME Association.

For those who can manage a holiday and change of scene, you might like to review the information leaflets we have available on travel and health.

Taking medicines abroad is covered in our recently updated leaflet on traveller’s health, which covers all aspects of health and travel if you have M.E.

It also covers all the vaccinations and other health precautions you may need for overseas travel and considers the necessary pre-travel planning.

We also have a leaflet providing tips on travel insurance, and a ‘To whom it may concern’ letter which can be used to help with travel through airports, modifications to accommodation etc.

  1. Vaccinations and pre-travel health planing,
  2. Travel Insurance,
  3. Travel and accommodation letter.

All leaflets are available as downloads from our website shop.


 



from ME Association
http://www.meassociation.org.uk/2018/07/taking-a-holiday-this-summer-if-so-then-you-might-like-to-review-our-m-e-travel-leaflets-06-july-2018/

from http://www.meassociation.org.uk

#cfsme

Thursday, 5 July 2018

Shattuckite Enhances Psychic Gifts, Mediumship and Channeling

Shattuckite

Shattuckite assists you to develop psychic communication gifts. Learn more about this potent psychic crystal, that boosts mediumship, channeling ability, automatic writing, intuition and clairvoyance or psychic visions.



from Healing Crystals For You
https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/shattuckite.html

from https://www.healing-crystals-for-you.com/healing-crystals-blog.html

#crystals #crystal #healing

Jul 5, Best Natural Remedies for Insomnia

When you need extra help falling asleep and staying asleep, natural remedies for insomnia can help you relax and call it a night...

from Holistic Healing Blog
https://www.holistic-mindbody-healing.com/natural-remedies-for-insomnia.html

from https://www.holistic-mindbody-healing.com/holistic-healing-blog.html

#holistic #healing

ME Association June Summary of ME/CFS Published Research | 04 July 2018

 


ME Association Index of Published ME/CFS Research

The Index of Published ME/CFS Research has now been updated to take account of the research that has been published during the month of June.

It provides a useful way to locate and then read all the relevant research on ME/CFS. It’s free to download and comes with an interactive contents table.

This is an A-Z list of all the most important ME/CFS research studies (and selected key documents and articles), listed by subject matter and author.

You can also find the index in the Research section of our website.


Research abstracts from studies published in June 2018

1. Broadbent S, et al. (2018)
Effects of a short-term aquatic exercise intervention on symptoms and exercise capacity in individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a pilot study
European Journal of Applied physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract
This pilot pre-and post-intervention study investigated the effects of a short-term aquatic exercise programme on physiological outcomes, symptoms and exercise capacity in women with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME).

Eleven women (54.8 ± 12.4 year) volunteered for the 5-week program; an initial 20-min aquatic exercise session then two self-paced 20-min sessions per week for 4 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention outcomes were physiological measures, 6 min Walk Test (6MWT), perceived exertion (RPE), hand grip strength, Sit-to-Stand, Sit-Reach test, Apley’s shoulder test, FACIT questionnaire, and 24-h post-test tiredness and pain scores (0-10 visual analogue scale). Heart rates, RPE, 24- and 48-h post-session tiredness/pain scores were recorded each session.

6MWT distance increased by 60.8 m (p = 0.006), left hand grip strength by 6 kg (p = 0.038), Sit-Reach test by 4.0 cm (p = 0.017), right shoulder flexibility by 2.9 cm (p = 0.026), FACIT scores by 8.2 (p = 0.041); 24-h post-test tiredness and pain decreased by 1.5 and 1.6, respectively (p = 0.002). There were significant post-intervention increases in exercising heart rates (6MWT 4- and 6-min time points), oxygen saturation at 2-min, and reduced RPE at 4-min. Weekly resting and exercising heart rates increased significantly during the study but RPE decreased; immediately post- and 24-h post-session tiredness decreased significantly. There were no reports of symptom exacerbation.

Conclusion:
Five weeks of low-moderate intensity aquatic exercise significantly improved exercise capacity, RPE and fatigue. This exercise mode exercise may potentially be a manageable and safe physical activity for CFS/ME patients.

2. Cambras D., et al. (2018)
Circadian rhythm abnormalities and autonomic dysfunction in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis
PLoS One 13 (6).

Abstract
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) patients frequently show autonomic symptoms which may be associated with a hypothalamic dysfunction.

This study aimed to explore circadian rhythm patterns in rest and activity and distal skin temperature (DST) and their association with self-reported outcome measures, in CFS/ME patients and healthy controls at two different times of year.

Ten women who met both the 1994 CDC/Fukuda definition and 2003 Canadian criteria for CFS/ME were included in the study, along with ten healthy controls matched for age, sex and body mass index.

Self-reported measures were used to assess fatigue, sleep quality, anxiety and depression, autonomic function and health-related quality of life. The ActTrust actigraph was used to record activity, DST and light intensity, with data intervals of one minute over seven consecutive days. Sleep variables were obtained through actigraphic analysis and from subjective sleep diary.

The circadian variables and the spectral analysis of the rhythms were calculated. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the rhythmic variables and clinical features. Recordings were taken in the same subjects in winter and summer.

Results showed no differences in rhythm stability, sleep latency or number of awakenings between groups as measured with the actigraph. However, daily activity, the relative amplitude and the stability of the activity rhythm were lower in CFS/ME patients than in controls. DST was sensitive to environmental temperature and showed lower nocturnal values in CFS/ME patients than controls only in winter.

A spectral analysis showed no differences in phase or amplitude of the 24h rhythm, but the power of the second harmonic (12h), revealed differences between groups (controls showed a post-lunch dip in activity and peak in DST, while CFS/ME patients did not) and correlated with clinical features.

Conclusion:
These findings suggest that circadian regulation and skin vasodilator responses may play a role in CFS/ME.

3. Chu L, et al. (2018)
Deconstructing post-exertional malaise in myalgic encephalomyelitis/ chronic fatigue syndrome: A patient-centered, cross-sectional survey
PLoS One 13(6).

Abstract
Post-exertional malaise (PEM) is considered to be the hallmark characteristic of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Yet, patients have rarely been asked in formal studies to describe their experience of PEM.

One hundred and fifty subjects, diagnosed via the 1994 Fukuda CFS criteria, completed a survey concerning 11 symptoms they could experience after exposure to two different types of triggers. We also inquired about onset and duration of PEM and included space for subjects to write in any additional symptoms.

Results were summarized with descriptive statistics; McNemar’s, paired t-, Fisher’s exact and chi-square goodness-of-fit tests were used to assess for statistical significance.

One hundred and twenty-nine subjects (90%) experienced PEM with both physical and cognitive exertion and emotional distress. Almost all were affected by exertion but 14 (10%) reported no effect with emotion.

Fatigue was the most commonly exacerbated symptom but cognitive difficulties, sleep disturbances, headaches, muscle pain, and flu-like feelings were cited by over 30% of subjects. Sixty percent of subjects experienced at least one inflammatory/ immune-related symptom. Subjects also cited gastrointestinal, orthostatic, mood-related, neurologic and other symptoms.

Exertion precipitated significantly more symptoms than emotional distress (7±2.8 vs. 5±3.3 symptoms (median, standard deviation), p<0.001). Onset and duration of PEM varied for most subjects. However, 11% reported a consistent post-trigger delay of at least 24 hours before onset and 84% endure PEM for 24 hours or more.

Conclusion:
This study provides exact symptom and time patterns for PEM that is generated in the course of patients’ lives. PEM involves exacerbation of multiple, atypical symptoms, is occasionally delayed, and persists for extended periods.

Highlighting these characteristics may improve diagnosis of ME/CFS. Incorporating them into the design of future research will accelerate our understanding of ME/CFS.

4. Collin S, et al. (2018)
Childhood sleep and adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS/ME): evidence of associations in a UK birth cohort
Sleep Medicine 46: 26-36.

Abstract
Sleep abnormalities are characteristic of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also known as ‘ME’), however it is unknown whether sleep might be a causal risk factor for CFS/ME.

We analysed data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. We describe sleep patterns of children aged 6 months to 11 years, who were subsequently classified as having (or not having) ‘chronic disabling fatigue’ (CDF, a proxy for CFS/ME) between the ages 13 and 18 years, and we investigated the associations of sleep duration at age nine years with CDF at age 13 years, as well as sleep duration at age 11 years with CDF at age 16 years.

Children who had CDF during adolescence had shorter night-time sleep duration from 6 months to 11 years of age, and there was strong evidence that difficulties in going to sleep were more common in children who subsequently developed CDF.

The odds of CDF at age 13 years were 39% lower (odds ratio (OR) = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.43, 0.88) for each additional hour of night-time sleep at age nine years, and the odds of CDF at age 16 years were 51% lower (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.70) for each additional hour of night-time sleep at age 11 years.

Mean night-time sleep duration at age nine years was 13.9 (95% CI = 3.75, 24.0) minutes shorter among children who developed CDF at age 13 years, and sleep duration at age 11 years was 18.7 (95% CI = 9.08, 28.4) minutes shorter among children who developed CDF at age 16 (compared with children who did not develop CDF at 13 and 16 years, respectively).

Conclusion:
Children who develop chronic disabling fatigue in adolescence have shorter night-time sleep duration throughout early childhood, suggesting that sleep abnormalities may have a causal role in CFS/ME or that sleep abnormalities and CFS/ME are associated with a common pathophysiological cause.

5. Fragkos, et al. (2018)
Severe eosinophilic colitis caused by neuropathic agents in a patient with chronic fatigue syndrome and functional abdominal pain: case report and review of the literature
Z Gastroenterology 56 (6): 573-577.

Abstract
Eosinophilic colitis is a rare clinical condition that belongs to the group of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Its occurrence can be primary or secondary to infection, medications, or autoimmune/hematological conditions.

We present a case of a young female adult with severe chronic fatigue syndrome, widespread chronic pain, including functional abdominal pain, who developed severe eosinophilic colitis following successive treatments with gabapentin and pregabalin.

On both occasions, symptoms manifested as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia and improved upon discontinuation of the medications. Magnetic resonance imaging of the small bowel demonstrated an ascending colon colitis, and endoscopic investigations confirmed florid colitis mainly in the ascending colon with biopsies demonstrating a dense eosinophilic infiltrate with micro-abscesses.

Serum eosinophil counts correlated well with the timing of the agents’ administration. There was no other organ involvement. Symptoms improved upon discontinuation of the drugs and steroid administration.

Conclusion:
Eosinophilic colitis is an exceptionally rare entity and its mechanism of action is still unclear. Suspicion of eosinophilic colitis should be raised if a patient presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and peripheral eosinophilia following treatment with pregabalin or gabapentin.

6. Geraghty K and Blease C (2018)
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and the biopsychosocial model: a review of patient harm and distress in the medical encounter
Disability and Rehabilitation 21: 1-10. 

See also: ME Association summary review written by Dr Geraghty.

Abstract
Despite the growing evidence of physiological and cellular abnormalities in myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), there has been a strong impetus to tackle the illness utilizing a biopsychosocial model. However, many sufferers of this disabling condition report distress and dissatisfaction following medical encounters. This review seeks to account for this discord.

A narrative review methodology is employed to synthesize the evidence for potential iatrogenesis. We identify seven potential modalities of iatrogenesis or harm reported by patients: difficulties in reaching an acceptable diagnosis; misdiagnosis, including of other medical and psychological conditions; difficulties in accessing the sick role, medical care and social support; high levels of patient dissatisfaction with the quality of medical care; negative responses to controversial therapies (cognitive behavioral therapy and graded exercise therapy); challenges to the patient narrative and experience; psychological harm (individual and collective distress).

Conclusion:
The biopsychosocial framework currently applied to ME/CFS is too narrow in focus and fails to adequately incorporate the patient narrative. Misdiagnosis, conflict, and harm are observable outcomes where doctors’ and patients’ perspectives remain incongruent.

Biopsychosocial practices should be scrutinized for potential harms. Clinicians should consider adopting alternative patient-centred approaches.

Implications for rehabilitation:
Patients with ME/CFS may report or experience one or more of the modalities of harms and distress identified in this review. It is important health and rehabilitation professionals seek to avoid and minimize harms when treating or assisting ME/CFS patients.

There are conflicting models of ME/CFS; we highlight two divergent models, a biopsychosocial model and a biomedical model that is preferred by patients. The ‘biopsychosocial framework’ applied in clinical practice promotes treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise therapy, however, the evidence for their success is contested and many patients reject the notion their illness is perpetuated by dysfunctional beliefs, personality traits, or behaviors.

Health professionals may avoid conflict and harm causation in ME/CFS by adopting more concordant ‘patient-centred’ approaches that give greater prominence to the patient narrative and experience of illness.

7. Gleason K., et al. (2018)
Operationalizing Substantial Reduction in Functioning Among Young Adults with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
International Journal of Behavioural Medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract
Chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis are fatiguing illnesses that often result in long-term impairment in daily functioning. In reviewing case definitions, Thrope et al. (Fatigue 4(3):175-188, 2016) noted that the vast majority of case definitions used to describe these illnesses list a “substantial reduction” in activities as a required feature for diagnosis. However, there is no consensus on how to best operationalize the criterion of substantial reduction.

The present study used a series of receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses to explore the use of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), designed by Ware and Shelbourne for operationalizing the substantial reduction criterion in a young adult population (18-29 years old). We compared the sensitivity and specificity of various cutoff scores for the SF-36 subscales and assessed their usefulness in discriminating between a group of young adults with a known diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (n = 98) versus those without that diagnosis (n = 272).

The four top performing subscales and their associated cutoffs were determined: Physical Functioning ≤ 80, General Health ≤ 47, Role Physical ≤ 25, and Social Functioning ≤ 50. Used in combination, these four cutoff scores were shown to reliably discriminate between the patients and controls in our sample of young adults.

Conclusion:
The implications of these findings for employing the substantial reduction criterion in both clinical and research settings are discussed.

8. Howard H. (2018)
Recent insights into 3 under recognized conditions: Myalgic encephalomyelitis–chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and environmental sensitivities–multiple chemical sensitivity
Canadian Family Physician 64 (6): 413-415.

Abstract
The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care recently released the interim report of a task force charged with providing recommendations on 3 symptom-based conditions that have both shared and distinctive features: myalgic encephalomyelitis–chronic fatigue syndrome (ME-CFS), fibromyalgia (FM), and environmental sensitivities–multiple chemical sensitivity (ES-MCS).

Typical symptoms of ME-CFS, FM, and ES-MCS
Symptoms common to all 3 conditions include the following:

  • Fatigue and, to varying degrees, pain, sleep disturbances, and neurologic and cognitive symptoms

Distinct symptoms among each condition include the following:

  • The fatigue in ME-CFS is chronic, profound, and not improved by rest, and there is postexertional malaise
  • The chronic musculoskeletal pain in FM is widespread
  • The symptoms of ES-MCS are provoked by exposure to low levels of multiple (and often unrelated) chemical, biological, or physical agents. Symptoms are usually neurocognitive, and might involve respiratory and other systems, with relief or improvement when inciting agents are removed

None of these conditions has consistent physical or laboratory findings, and the conditions vary in severity. Their underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. As with many chronic conditions, patients are at risk of anxiety, depression, and other psychological symptoms. The foregoing attributes and the lack of proven treatments and clinical practice guidelines have led to decades of uncertainty regarding diagnosis, unnecessary investigations, ineffective treatment, and unmitigated suffering.

Conclusion:
Nevertheless, as noted in the report, recent insights reveal both the need and opportunities for finding solutions. First is evidence underscoring the prevalence of these conditions in Canada and their effect on health care use and employment. Second is mounting evidence of biological mechanisms that might lead to effective treatments. These insights, including those summarized within this article, deserve wide dissemination in the primary care community.

9. Karfakis N. (2018)
The biopolitics of CFS/ME
Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Science [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract
This paper argues that Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) constitutes a biopolitical problem, a scientific object which needs to be studied, classified and regulated.

Assemblages of authorities, knowledges and techniques make CFS/ME subjects and shape their everyday conduct in an attempt to increase their supposed autonomy, wellbeing and health.

CFS and CFS/ME identities are however made not only through government, scientific, and medical interventions but also by the patients themselves, a biosocial community who collaborates with scientists, educates itself about the intricacies of biomedicine, and contests psychiatric truth claims.

CFS/ME is an illness trapped between medicine and psychology, an illness that is open to debate and therefore difficult to manage and standardise.

Conclusion:
The paper delineates different interventions by medicine, science, the state and the patients themselves and concludes that CFS/ME remains elusive, only partially standardised, in an on-going battle between all the different actors that want to define it for their own situated interests.

10. Roman P, et al. (2018)
Are probiotic treatments useful on fibromyalgia syndrome or chronic fatigue syndrome patients? A systematic review
Beneficial Microbes 9 (4): 603-611. [Previously published online ahead of print.]

Abstract
Evidence suggests that the gut microbiota might play an important role in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Our goal is to systematically review the reported effect of probiotic treatments in patients diagnosed with FMS or CFS.

A systematic review was carried out using 14 databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PsycINFO, and others) in February 2016 to search for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and pilot studies of CFS or FMS patient, published in the last ten years (from 2006 to 2016).

The Jadad scale was used to asseverate the quality of the clinical trials considered. Two studies (n=83) met the inclusion criteria, which were performed in CFS patients and both studies were considered as a ‘High range of quality score’.

The administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota in CFS patients, over the course of 8 weeks, reduced anxiety scores. Likewise, this probiotic changed the faecal composition following 8 weeks of treatment. Additionally, the treatment with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 in CFS patients, during the same period, reduced inflammatory biomarkers.

Conclusion:
The evidence about the usefulness of probiotics in CFS and FMS patients remains limited. The studied strains of probiotics have demonstrated a significant effect on modulating the anxiety and inflammatory processes in CFS patients. However, more experimental research, focusing mainly on the symptoms of the pathologies studied, is needed.

11. Rowe P, et al. (2018)
Two-Year Follow-Up of Impaired Range of Motion in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Journal of Pediatrics [Epub ahead of print].

Abstract
To measure changes in range of motion (ROM) over time in a cohort of 55 adolescents and young adults with chronic fatigue syndrome and to determine whether changes in ROM correlated with changes in health-related quality of life.

Participants underwent a standardized examination of 11 areas of limb and spine ROM at baseline and at 3- to 6-month intervals for 2 years, resulting in a ROM score that ranged from 0 (normal throughout) to 11 (abnormal ROM in all areas tested).

We measured the time until the ROM score was ≤2 (the score in healthy age-matched controls). Change in ROM was measured by subtracting the 24-month from the baseline ROM score and by summing the degrees of change in the 10 tests with continuous outcomes. Health-related quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 (PedsQL).

The mean age at enrollment was 16.5 years (range 10-23). Two-year follow-up was available for 53 (96%). The proportion with a ROM score of >2 fell gradually over 2 years, from 78% at entry to 20% at 24 months (P < .001). ROM scores improved from a median of 5 at entry to 2 at 24 months (P < .001). The change in the summed degrees of improvement in ROM correlated positively with improvement in the PedsQL physical function subscale (r = 0.30; P < .03).

Conclusion:
In association with multimodal therapy, young people with chronic fatigue syndrome experienced progressively less impairment in ROM over 2 years, correlating with improvements in the physical function subscale of the PedsQL.

12. Tomas C and Newton J. (2018)
Metabolic abnormalities in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a mini-review
Biochemical Society Transactions 46 (3): 547-553. [Previously published online ahead of print.]

Abstract
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), commonly known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), is a debilitating disease of unknown etiology. CFS/ME is a heterogeneous disease associated with a myriad of symptoms but with severe, prolonged fatigue as the core symptom associated with the disease.

There are currently no known biomarkers for the disease, largely due to the lack of knowledge surrounding the eitopathogenesis of CFS/ME. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to identify potential biomarkers for the disease.

This mini-review offers a brief summary of current research into the identification of metabolic abnormalities in CFS/ME which may represent potential biomarkers for the disease. The progress of research into key areas including immune dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, 5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation, skeletal muscle cell acidosis, and metabolomics are presented here.

Conclusion:
Studies outlined in this mini-review show many potential causes for the pathogenesis of CFS/ME and identify many potential metabolic biomarkers for the disease from the aforementioned research areas.

The future of CFS/ME research should focus on building on the potential biomarkers for the disease using multi-disciplinary techniques at multiple research sites in order to produce robust data sets.

Whether the metabolic changes identified in this mini-review occur as a cause or a consequence of the disease must also be established.


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from ME Association
http://www.meassociation.org.uk/2018/07/me-association-june-summary-of-me-cfs-published-research-04-july-2018/

from http://www.meassociation.org.uk

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